Friday, June 27, 2008

Mahmud Gawan and Madarasa of Bidar

Mahmud Gawan, a merchant by vocation, arrived in Bidar kingdom ruled by the Bahamani kings in 1453 A.D. He was well versed in Islamic lore, Persian language and mathematics. He was known for his profound scholarship in the Middle East before coming to India. Due to his perseverance, honesty, simplicity and learning he earned the goodwill of the Bahamani rulers and held important posts under three successive kings. Mahmud III (1462-82 A.D.) as a young boy studied under his tutorship, and became the grand Vazir or Prime Minister when Mahmud became the king and looked after the administration for nearly thirty years.

Gawan was rich due to his international trade but spent his entire earnings on promotion of education. In 1472 A.D. he established a Madrassah in Bidar, then the capital of the Bahmanis. The Madrassah had an imposing three-story building with 100 feet tall minarets in four corners. There were thrity-six rooms for students and six suites for the teaching staff. It also had big lecture halls, a prayer had and a matchless library of three thousand volumes. Gawan himself had a personal library of more than a thousand books. He used to spend all his leisure time in the library.

The Madrassah building had a large courtyard with nearly a thousand cubicles where students and learned men who came from all parts of the country and East could stay. Boarding and lodging were free. There were 118 students on a permanent basis and countless itinerary scholars.

The Madrassah of Mahmud Gawan, Bidar

Mahmud Gawan was familiar with renowned colleges at Samarkhand and Khorasan and his own college or Madrassah was modeled on the West Asian architecture.

Gawan tried to get renowned scholars from Persia and other West-Asian countries for teaching and heading the now famous college. But most of them declined the offer due to age and arduous journey. Sheikh Ibrahim Multani became head of the Madrassah and finally chief Kazi of the kingdom who is credited with spread of Islamic learning in the state.

Gawan’s growing clout in the court was a sour point with Dakhani or local Muslim leaders. They considered him a foreigner and his influence over the royalty brought in lot of contention. There were administrative reforms introduced by Gawan, which brought in much resentment among Dakhani governors. A careful plot was laid down by the courtiers to kill him. They obtained Gawan’s seal and affixed it on a blank paper and forged a letter inviting the king of Orissa to attack the Bahamani Kingdom. The letter was duly delivered to the king who was always in a drunken state. Without verifying the facts, the king sent for Gawan, and asked about the punishment to be meted out for treason. “Death” was the prompt reply given by Mahmud Gawan. The Sultan (king) showed him the letter. Although Gawan admitted that the seal was his, he pleaded complete innocence about the contents. But the Sultan was not in his senses and ordered Gawan’s beheading on the spot. Gawan warned the king to use discretion in such serious allegations. Those were his last words. Thus came the end of the scholar statesman.

When Gawan’s house was raided for alleged accumulated wealth, all that could be found was a mat, cooking vessels, the Holy Koran and 144 letters he wrote. Though the Madrassah suffered heavy loss due to his sudden death, the building continued in good condition for nearly two centuries. After the capture of Bidar by Aurangzeb in the late 17th century, the ranges of buildings were used for powder magazine and as barracks for a body of cavalry. Unfortunately lightening struck the powder magazine and there was a huge explosion, destroying the greater part of the edifice causing immense damage. Most of the rooms and three minarets were destroyed. Only one minaret and few cubicles have survived today. (see picture above)

Tourist Attractions

The follwing places of this District attract a lots of tourist all through the year

Guru Nank Jhira, Bidar

Gurudwara Bidar is one of Holiest Place for Sikhs. Every Year this place attracts lots of tourists from all parts of the country particularly during the months of November and March. Legend has it that Saint Guru Nanak visited the palce while the land was in the grip of a famine The Guru performed a miracle at the request of the locals and a spring of water from the laterite rock mountain burst out. Till this day crystal clear water flows from the laterite trap.The belief is that drinking of this water cures many ailments.

Papnash Shiva Temple at Bidar:.

As per the local traditional saying, the Shiva Linga idol in this temple is one of those installed by Shri RAM during the time of his journey back from Lanka. The location of the temple in a valley is mesmerising to the eyes. Every year at the time of Shivrathri festival lot of tourists visit this place. A natural spring flows into a pond in front of the temple which is called 'Papnasha'

Narshimha Jhira Water Cave Temple:

At this place the Powerful diety as per the belief here is situated in cave of nealy 300 meters. One has to wade through water upto chest height to have darshan of the diety. It will be thrilling experience with bats and owls sitting on the roof toop of cave but they will not do any harm to the devotees. In the year 1999 with efforts of an young IAS Officer Mr. M Maheswar Rao who was working as Assistant Commissioner and was incharge of this temple comittee got the cave Air conditioned and Electrified.

Dev DeV Vana (Botanical Garden):

An Eco Tourism center 6 KM away from Bidar town on Bidar - Hyderbad Highway. With more than 200 medicinal plants, this vana is believed to be something of a unconventional temple of plants.

Veerbhadreshewar Jatra's at Humnabad & Changlare:

Two very ancient temples of Lord Veerbhadreshwara in Humnabad Taluk one at Humnabad and one at Changlara village attract lakhs of tourists in the Month of January and November respectively for the yearly Jatra and cart pulling Mohotsav's. The temple at Humnabad constructed in 1725 is famous for its moving pillar.

Manik Prabhu Temple at Humnabad:

It attracts lots of tourists in the Month of December at the time of Annual Celebrations. On the same ocassion every year a Night long Classical Musical function will be held and till now the likes of Bhimsen Joshi, Zakir hussain and many others have come here for this annual jatra mahotsav.


231 B.C The Satavahanas who were ruling at Paithan as vassals of Mauryas proclaimed independence. They ruled over Dakshinapatha for about four centuries and a half. The Vakatakas dominated the Deccan.
345 A.D Kadambas rose to power Vaijayanti (Banavasi) was their capital and palasika (Halsi) a second capital Sindas of Ranjeru- Attale nadu
545 A.D Pulakesin I established chalukya power. He made vatapi( the Modern Badami) his capital
753 A.D Rashtrakuta Prince Danti Durga proclaimed him self the sovereign power in the Deccan. Manyakheta(Malkhed) was their Capital, jain temple at Kambithana(Kamthana)
913 A.D Rashtrakuta Karka 11 was dethroned by the Chalukya, Taila II, Taila's success was the beginning of the Chalukyan empire of Kalyani. 1042-68A.D Someshwara I removed the capital from Manyakheta to Kalyani
1075 A.D Kakatiya Beta II received Sabbinadu from Chalukyas.
26th February 1077 Coronation of Vikramaditya VI started Chalukya Vikrama Varsha Jalsangi Temple
1154 A.D Kalchuri Bijjala became the Mahapradhana to Taila III.
1155 A.D Bijjala Started carrying on the administration in the name of Taila III.
1157 A.D Kalachuri Bijjala assumed full imperial titles.
1162 A.D After the death of Baladeva, Basaveshwara was Minister to Bijjala. Allamaprabhu ascended sunya pitha in the anubhava mantapa
1167 A.D Bijjala abdicated the throne in favour of his son somideva or someshvara.
1181 A.D Somesvara IV the son of Chalukya Taila III became ruler after sweeping away the last remnants of Kalchuri power.
1188 A.D Yadava Bhillama seized Kalyana. The Kakatiyas also gained some territory of chalukyan empire as a result of the final dissolution of Chalukyan hegemony.
1270 A.D Yadava mahadeva was forced to surrender Bedadakota (Bidar) which was annexed to the Kakatiya Kingdom. Sinda Bhairava assisted Kakatiyas in the struggle
1318 A.D Badarkot (Bidar) and other places were ceded to Khusrau Khan
1320 A.D Kakatiya pratap rudra reoccupied Badarkot and other places.
1322 A.D Bidar Town which was on the frontier of Telingana and Baswakalyan forts were taken by Ulugh Khan(Muhammad-Bin-Tughluq) who was then a prince. Those town fort were left incharge of trust worthy officers with strong garrison.
1336 A.D The Vijaynagara empire founded.
1341 A.D Muhammad Bin Tughluq honoured Shihab-Ud-Din of Multan with the litle Nusrat Khan and conferred on him the Government of Bidar( One of the aqlims or provinces) with its dependencies on the condition that he should pay a revenue of one Crore of rupees annually into the kings treasury.
1345 A.D As Nusrat Khan could not fulfil the condition, he was expelled. Sadah Amirs (who were revenue collectors as well as military commanders under Mohd. Tughluq) rebelled. They elected one of their members Ismail Mukh as the sultan of Deccan. As he was aged, he readily abdicated his charge in favour of Hasan Gangu.
3rd August 1347 Zafar Khan (Hasan Gangu) was crowned and assumed the title of Ala-Ud-Din Hasan Bahman Shah at Daulatabad. He made Gulbarga his capital. Bidar was made a taraf/province under a governor. The Bidar town began to flourish as a provincial head quarters.
1358 A.D Azam-I-Humiyun of Bidar who defeated the Nayaka of warangal was appointed as the Governor of Golconda. 1364 A.D The Kingdom of warangal was finally destroyed by Ahmed shah
1378-1397 A.D Muhamad II established some schools for orphans at Bidar.
1396 The Durga Devi Xamam; a famine that lasted for 12 years and ruined the country between the Godavari and the Krishna.
1428 A.D On his return from Kherla, Ahmed stayed in Bidar for some time, where he was struck by its situation and climate that he decided to build a new city near its ancient fortress and called it Ahmadabad-Bidar.
1429 A.D Bidar became the new capital. Ahmed shah wali(1423-1436 A.D) laid the foundations of the Bidar fort. The construction was completed around 1432 A.D
1436-1458 A.D Ala-Ud-Din Ahmed-II . He built a large hospital at Bidar and staffed it with expert Muslim and Hindu physicians.
1453 Mohammed Gawan's arrival at Bidar.
1458-1461A.D Humayun was the sultan. He appointed mahmud Gawan as the Prime Minister, Commander-in-Chief and governor of Bijapur.
1461-1463 Nizamud-din-Ahmed II 1463-1482 Muhammad III Mahmud Gawan. Prime Minister, introduced many reforms, Great Madarsa of Mahmud Gawan was found by Gawan in 1472 A.D, Goa annexed to Bahmani Kingdom.
1471-1474 A.D Afanasy Nikitin a Russian Traveler was in the Deccan including Bidar.
5th April 1481 On the order of the monarch Muhammad III, mahmud Gawan was beheaded at Kondappalli Camp.
1523 A.D As Bahmani Sultan Alaud-din Shah was venturing to assert himself, he was dethrouned by Amir Barid.
1538 A.D The Bahamani dynasty faded out of history. Five smaller states emerged including Barid Shahi dynasty.
1543 A.D Ali Barid assumed royal appellation of Shah.
1619 A.D The Adil Shah of Bijapur took over Bidar.
1656 A.D The Mughal forces captured Bidar and Kalyani. Bidar was annexed to the Mughal empire.
1724 A.D Asaf Jahi Dynasty succeeded Mughal rule. Rule by governors.
1846 A.D Bidar was made the headquarter of a sadar talukdar (Commissioner)
1867 A.D "Bhalki conspiracy " was the echo of the great insurrection of 1857-58 in the region.
1891 A.D Govt. school at Bidar was made a High School.
1905 A.D Bidar was reduced to H.Q of Talluqdar(Collector)
29th August, 1911 The last member of Nizam dyansty Mir Osman Ali Khan, became the Nizam.
1922 Bidar Dist. Central co-operative Bank came into existence.
1st July 1932 The Railway line which passes through the Bidar district was opened for traffic.
17th Sept 1948 The Nizam announced on the radio about the surrender. The Nizam rule came to an end. Asafia Flag brought down. The Hyderabad state became a part of the Indian Union.
1952 Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Abdul Kalam Azad and Ku. Padmaja Nadu visited Bidar.
1955 Akhil Bharat Veershaiva Mahasabha held its sammelan at Basavakalyan. Sri Jayachamraj wadeyer, the then Governor of Mysore State laid the foundation of New Anubhava Mantappa Building.
1956 Vist of Dr. Rajendra Prasad to Bidar. 1st Novermber
1956 Bidar district along with other districts of Hyderabad Karnataka became part of Mysore state but only with four talukas. Basavakalyan Taluka was brought into existence in 1965
21st March 1961 Bidar Shakar Sakkare Karkhana Ltd., a sugar factory was registered under the Karnataka co-operative societies act.
1961 B.V. Bhoomaraddi College, First Degree College started at Bidar.
26th Nov. 1969 B.S.S.K Ltd., at Hallikhed started its regular production.
1998 SHG movement started in a big way in Bidar District by DCC Bank Ltd., Bidar.
2002 Naranja Sugar Factory (Under Opt. Sector) started its regular production.



How to reach BIDAR

By Air: Rajiv Gandhi International Terminal, Begumpet, Hyderabad is Just 120 Kms away from Bidar District Head Quarters. Its just 2 and half hours drive from the airport to Bidar on NH9 till Zaheerabad and a diversion of 28 KMs after Zaheerabad.
By Rail : Rail facility is available from Bangalore and Hyderbad. Bangalore - Nanded Link Express Via Bidar, Departure from Bangalore at 9.50 PM. Secundrabad - Manmad Express from Hyderbad Departure at 6 PM from Secundrabad Station, Hyderbad. Hyderbad - Aurangabad Express from Kachiguda weekly thrice. One can also take Udyan express or KK Express from Bangalore reach Gulbarga and take a bus from there, its 105 KMS from Gulbarga.
By Road: From Bangalore many Govt Luxury Buses of KSRTC ply daily via Hyderbad, Its 16 hours journey from Bangalore via Hyderabad on NH 7 and NH 9. From Bangalore Via Gulbarga and Bellary its 20 hours journey. From Hyderbad Imaliban bus stand for every 15 minutes a Bus to Bidar is available from Plat form No 36.

Bidar District Road Map

Monday, June 23, 2008

Bidar Historical Places




The Sharaza Darwaza

The Gumbad Darwaza

The Rangeen Mahal

The Royal Kitchens

The Royal Baths

The Tarakash Mahal

The Gagan Mahal (Hevenly Palace)

The Diwan-e-Am(Hall of Public Audience)

The Takhat Mahal (Throne Palace) Royal Pavilion

The Haraj Kothri

The Naubat Khana(Band Hall)

Sol Khamba Mosque Fortification and their cannons Old Fort, Pond etc.,


The Choubara

The Madrsa of Mahamud Gawan

The Habshikot Dara of Hazrat shal Abdul Faid

The humble grave of Mahammud Gawan

The Bahamani Toms at Ashtur

The Chaukandi

The Baridi Tombs

Other places of interest Bidar District.

Papnash Temple and Pond

Narsimha Zira

Gurunanak Zira

Gai Mukh



Karaja Dam

Dev Dev Vana


Fort Museum

Basaveshwar Temple

Parusha Katte

Prabhudevara Gaddige

Tripurantaka Lake

Akkanagamma's Cave

Basaveshwara Mahamane

Vijnaneshvara cave

Caves of Sharanas Mathas and Dargahs

Manik Prabhu Samsthana at Maniknagar